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What Properties of Ti-Cu Alloys Make Them Suitable for Dentistry?

Alloyed titanium has been studied extensively and located to have appropriate qualities to be used as a dental solid. Whereas some combos of metals with titanium could not yield fascinating outcomes, the Ti-Cu combination has proven glorious properties and structural adaptation for functions in fabricating dental works.

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Dental Stone, which is extra not too long ago known as Dental Forged, is an correct, third-dimensional prototype of a affected person’s denture. It’s obtained by pouring a dense materials, solidifying beneath specified situations, into an impression of a affected person’s oral tissue. Many supplies have been developed and used as dental casts. Nonetheless, most of them have challenges which have prompted scientists and dental technologists to maintain up analysis to enhance the approach.

Mechanical and Structural Benefits of Titanium in Dental Forged

Titanium is a light-weight transition steel with a superb refractive property however a comparatively excessive melting and boiling level. The steel is about 40% lighter than metal, regardless that each have virtually the identical energy and sturdiness. Alloys of titanium are additionally recognized to own excessive tensile energy and low weight and are exceptionally proof against corrosion. They’re additionally proof against erosion and cavitation upon intense software of stress.

Notably, the flexibility of titanium to withstand corrosion has made it an important materials for denture evaluation and fabrication. When oxygen assaults a titanium materials, it varieties a skinny layer of TiO2 on its floor, which successfully inhibits additional materials degradation through corrosion.

One other property which makes titanium and its alloy an important materials within the dental solid is its low elasticity modulus. This property makes it fairly versatile and permits it to return to its authentic form after bending. Titanium alloys are amongst a bunch of alloys known as Reminiscence Alloys. These metals might be deformed when chilly however return to their authentic form when heated.

Titanium can be a diamagnetic, biocompatible transition steel and isn’t poisonous or allergenic to the human system. The steel density is comparatively low, making certain that it may simply be carried throughout the human buccal cavity. Under are the numerous bodily properties of titanium, which have an effect on its mechanical and structural adaptation as a steel constituent of alloys utilized in dental solid fabrication:

  • State of Matter beneath Customary Situations –      –           Stable
  • Atomic Mass –           –           –           –           –           –           47.867 amu
  • Density beneath Customary Situations         –           –                4.506 g/cm3
  • Melting Level –           –           –           –           –           –           1670 0C
  • Boiling Level –           –           –           –           –           –           3287 0C
  • Thermal Growth –           –           –           –           –           8.6 mK
  • Thermal Conductivity          –           –           –           –           21.9 W/mK

Mechanical and Structural Advantages of Copper in Dental Cast

Copper, like titanium, is a transition metal. It is ductile, malleable, and has relatively high thermal and electrical conductivity. Like titanium, copper is also very resistant to corrosion. The malleable and ductile nature of the metal makes it ideal for fabrication and joining. 

Copper metal possesses enormous strength and durability and does not brittle under harsh environmental conditions. The metal is also a non-ferrous one, which means it is diamagnetic, just like titanium. The ability of copper to form alloys quickly is crucial in its application for making a suitable dental cast. It is also biocompatible to the human body and even shows strong antimicrobial activity. Studies are still ongoing to determine the actual mechanism of copper’s antimicrobial action. However, elementary studies suggest that it could be related to its microstructure.

The significant mechanical and structural properties of copper are listed below:

  • State of Matter beneath Customary Situations –      –           Stable
  • Atomic Mass –           –           –           –           –           –           63.546 amu
  • Density beneath Customary Situations         –           –           –    8.92 g/cm3
  • Melting Level –           –           –           –           –           –           1084 0C
  • Boiling Level –           –           –           –           –           –           2562 0C
  • Thermal Growth –           –           –           –           –           16.5 mK
  • Thermal Conductivity          –           –           –           –           401 W/mK

Mechanical and Structural Advantages of Ti-Cu Alloy as a Dental Cast

Titanium metal has very desirable qualities for dental casting, but the alloy of titanium and copper presents improved mechanical properties. It has better corrosion resistance, advanced biocompatibility, and a relatively low melting point. However, the Ti-Cu alloy’s properties depend on its microstructural properties, including growth formation, morphological features of the inter-metal structures, and the formation mechanism of the alloy precipitates.

What Determines the Microstructure of a TI-Cu Alloy

The microstructural properties of metallic alloys are primarily determined by the route through which the alloy was produced. In making Ti-Cu alloy, two basic methods are used. These are mechanical alloying (MA) of the pure elements and mechanical milling (MM) of intermetallic compounds.

In a study published in the Journal of Alloys and Compounds, samples of Titanium alloys produced by the two methods were structurally analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DCS). SEM results showed that the MM-alloy powder was deformed during the milling.

The XRD spectral analysis confirmed that the constituent metals were uniformly dispersed in both methods. In contrast, the result from both the XRD and DSC analysis suggests that the milling time required for the complete amorphization of the MA-alloy is longer than that required for the MM-alloy. It also reveals that the MA-alloy powder’s activation energy and crystallization temperature are not the same as that of the MM-alloy powder. 

Alternative Materials for Dental Casts

Many materials have been developed before and after introducing the Ti-Cu alloy for the dental cast. Each of these materials possesses unique advantages and limitations. Alloys of gold, platinum, and palladium were all used in the 1950s as dental casts, but the significant limitations of these alloys were that they were weak and had low sag resistance. However, the alloys were able to cast and solder without much difficulty. Nonetheless, the cost of this alloy was relatively high and was not affordable to a good number of patients.

Over the years, subsequent studies and research have thrown up other alloys containing a lesser amount of noble metals, which are very useful in dental casting. The Ti-Cu alloy is one of these discoveries.

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References and Additional Studying

Xu V. W., Nizami M. Z. I., Yin I. X., Yu O. Y., Lung C. Y. K., Chu C. H. (2022). Application of Copper Nanoparticles in Dentistry. Journal of Nanomaterials, 12(5). pp: 805.


Thongthammachat S., Moore B. K., Barco M. T., Hovijitra S., Brown D. T., Andres C. J. (2002). Dimensional Accuracy of Dental Casts: Influence of Tray Material, Impression Material and Time. Journal of Prosthodontics, 11(2). pp: 98 – 108.


Papadiochos I., Papadiochou S., Emmanouil I. (2017). The Historical Evolution of Dental Impression Materials. Journal of Hist Dent. 65(2). pp: 79 – 89.


Morecambe Metals. (2018). Metals and Their Properties: Copper. Accessed online on 3rd June 2022


Kishimura H., Matsumoto H. (2011). Fabrication of Ti-Cu-Ni-Al amorphous alloys by Mechanical Alloying and Mechanical Milling. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 509(12). pp: 4386 – 4389.


Asgar K. (1988). Casting Metals in Dentistry: Past – Present – Future. Journal of Advanced Dental  Restoration 2(1). pp: 33 – 43.


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